عنوان مقاله [English]
Iranian migration to India, especially the migration of a wide range of artists, scholars, bookmen, poets, and even military elites, is one of the common processes of various periods in Iranian history that has led many historians and writers investigated the causes of this migration. Therefore, various views and statements have been presented in this regard. There have been various reasons for the migration of Iranian elites to India during the Safavid era, perhaps the most prominent of these reasons is being the religious toleration of the Gurkani kings and the kings’ benevolent and the nobility of the kings and elders of this dynasty towards Iranian immigrants. It was known that the Gurkani dynasties honored the Iranian immigrants and provided them with the support they needed to grow and flourish. As such, more elites were daily attracted to the Gurkani court and, under the dynasties’ support, appeared in various stages of politics, art, and culture, etc., and often shone brightly, but simultaneously with growth and excellence of the great Iranian men in India in Gurkani era, some Iranian women immigrated to this area also showed good fortune in various fields of this period. These women, who were linked in various ways to the Gurkani court, gained great influence and validity against the kings and elders of this dynasty, thus directly or indirectly interfering in affairs and playing a very effective role. The events of this period have had many occasions, and most of the good names have been remembered on the history page of Indian Gurkani. Accordingly, the main question of the present study is: What was the role of Iranian women in Gurkanian court in the political issues of this period and what was the outcome of such activities? The various domains of politics and power and the consequence of such activities are on the situation of the court and the society of Gurkani era.
The present study, using descriptive-analytical methods and library resources such as historical sources, memoirs, literary books, and memoirs, clarifies various aspects of the role of Iranian women in the Indian Gurkhani court.
Along with the migration of some Iranian elites to the Indian subcontinent in Gurkani era, some of the women associated with these individuals found a way to the court for various reasons, such as being assigned to the great men of this period, financial independence, beauty, intelligence and courage and often found a privileged position beside the kings and elders of the dynasty, thus using their position in the court to contribute to politics and government, and to the men of this dynasty, in growth and excellence of Indian society of the Gurkani era have taken steps, according to the historical sources and documents of this period, some of these women have participated in and intervened in political affairs, or with the support of the king and elders of the government and in the battlefields, were actively involved in the political conflicts of this period, such as Nurjahan Beygom (Mehralensa) (1055/984 AH), the beloved wife of Jahangir Shah Gurkani and daughter of Khaje Ghiyasuddin Tehrani, Jahangir Shah’s Chancellor, was one of the prominent women activists of Gurkani era whose love and trust in Shah Jahangir has given rise to Nourjahan's interference in royal affairs and has made her the most powerful lady in India's Gurkani era. Kurdish. (Jahangir Gurkani, 1980: 287, 181) Jahangir Shah, after marrying Nurjahan, made him the first lady of the court and granted him the high position and other members of his family (Shahnawaz Khan, 1809, c.1151).
Arjmand Beygom, the Iranian wife of Shah Jahan, also had a privileged position in the Gurkani court and the love of Shah Jahan towards his wife was so high that the most important royal seal (Ozuk's seal designed by the king's name and letters and orders and important government documents were sealed by it) was given to Arjomand Beygom (Lahori, 1867, c. 1: 148) Hamideh Beygom's presence in the wars in Homayun period and her companion with Gurkani king, Homayoun Shah and Nurjahan Beygom's campaign against Mahabat Khan during the reign of Jahangir was also one of the cases that highlighted the significant role of women in the wars in this period and the suppression of enemies. (Bedaouni, 2001, Vol. 1: 310-2299 / Jahangir Gurkani, 1980: 316) The courage and skill of Nurjahan in using war equipment was such that Jahangir Shah always praised his wife's intelligence, cleverness, and courage in her memoirs. He is known for his skillful riding and accurate shooting (Ibid: 214 and 119).
The presence of some other Iranian women in the Gurkani court had a significant impact on the consolidation of the Gurkanian power stands, such as Babur's marriage to Maham Beygom and Homayun Shah's marriage to Hamideh Beygom, both of whom are descended from a great and Sufi Aref, Ahmed Zhende Pill, had a significant impact on the consolidation of the Gurkanian power stands in Afghanistan and the Indian subcontinent, and Babur and his successor, Homayoun Shah, supported the marriages and their dependents, especially enjoyed the support of the Safavid government (Tatvi, 2003, Vol. 8: 5507)
Some other Iranian women have interfered with the mediations between the elders at the Gurkani court and resolved the problems and conflicts of this period with a profound footprint in the course of the events during this period, while others participated in conspiracies and court plots or by intervening in the appointment of the Crown Prince, dismissing and appointing of the government officials, they have played a significant role in weakening or consolidating the foundations of the Gurkanian government. In this regard, the efforts of Nurjahan Beygom to dismiss Prince Khorram from Crown Prince, and his support for Shahriar, another son of Jahangir Shah can be mentioned (Behkari, Bita: 69-62).
At Gurkani Sultanate’s harem in India, there were representatives of different races and ethnicities, women of different ethnicities like Mongol, Turkish, Indian, Iranian, and so on women gathering in the court of the Gurkani dynasty clarified free political open space and religious toleration are the beliefs of kings and elders of the dynasty; however, the Iranian women of the Gurkani court were always at the forefront of the harem’s women and had a special respect and prestige for the kings and elders of the dynasty. This respect and prestige provided them with a privileged base and the Iranian women of Gurkani court were present in various political, social, cultural and economic fields with their wisdom and intelligence. The direct and even indirect participation of some of these women in politics and power had a profound impact on the events in this period. For example, the marriage of Maham Beygom to Baburshah and Hamideh Beygom to the Homayun Shah played an important role in maintaining, sustaining and consolidating the foundations of Gurkani monarchy, and the power of Nurjahan Beygom during the reign of Jahangir Shah and his direct interference in political affairs in this era. And the conflicts between the king's children had a great impact on the succession issue. Also, some Iranian women of the Gurkani court, such as Arjomand and Janan Beygom, took advantage of their prestige and respect to resolve the disputes between the courtiers, princes and the Gurkani kings and problem-solving, and overall the growth and ascendancy of Gurkani's reign. Other women, such as Seti al-Nesa Beygom, as a physician and tutor to the Gurkani princes, achieved a much higher status in the Gurkani reign. Investigation of the life and practice of Iranian women at Gurkani court shows that they had tried in various ways to make the most of their political and privileged status to facilitate affairs, although in some cases their performance was contrary to this process.
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