تربیت انسان از دیدگاه رابیندرانات تاگور

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته ی فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 استادیار علوم تربیتی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان (نویسنده مسئول)

3 استادیار فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

10.22111/jsr.2020.5568

چکیده

هدف این مقاله بررسی تربیت انسان از دیدگاه رابیندرانات تاگور می ­باشد. روش گردآوری اطلاعات اسنادی است و شیوه کار توصیفی، تحلیلی و بخشی استنتاجی می ­باشد. بر اساس نگاه کلی ­نگر تاگور، وی تربیت را انسان گرایانه و بشر دوستانه و هدف آن را متوازن ساختن زندگی بشر با کل هستی می ­داند تاگور، علاوه بر تاکید به سازواری ابعاد انسانی، یگانگی انسان ها و پیوند طبیعت با انسان را خاطر نشان شده و دوران کودکی را در تحقق این مهم کلیدی می ­داند؛ با این نگاه است که او ملی­گرایی تهاجمی را در تضاد با یگانگی دانسته و وحدت، همدردی و همدلی در لباس توجه به قشر فقیر و محروم بویژه دختران و دنیایی عاری از تبعیض را متذکر می­شود. پس پیام ضمنی و آشکار تربیتی این اندیشه، برای جامعه کنونی ایران چه می تواند باشد؟ از نظر پژوهشگر چنین استنباط می­شود که با توجه  به تکثر قومیتی، نژادی و فرهنگی ایران، می­ توان از اندیشه تاگور به عنوان یکی از الگوهای تربیتی وحدت ­­بخش یاد کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of the viewpoint of Rabindranath Tagore and his educational implications

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Namani 1
  • Masoud Khanjarkhani 2
  • aboosaeed davarpanah 3
1 Graduated from the philosophy of education of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
2 Assistant professor of Educational Science Dept, university of sistan and baluchestan
3 Assistant professor of philosophy of education Dept, university of sistan and baluchestan
چکیده [English]

 
1-      Introduction
    In ancient times, philosophizing was not mere theorizing, and the philosopher did not count on the mere consideration of the equations of the universe and nature: "The fundamental lesson of philosophy is" inviting man to change himself, "and therefore, philosophy, must be the process of" transformation through existence, life, and the search for wisdom. ""(Davidson, A.I.: 1990). According to Swami Sivananda, "philosophy, the perfection of knowledge (Vedanta), and the knowledge of the eternal existence of Brahmavidya, which speaks of the infinite existence of the mode of asension (Yogasastra). Philosophy, consciousness of existence, wisdom, and mind your way to reason. An ethical and rational epistemic, which, in the light of reason and law, and the delivery of the phenomena of the universe to their ultimate causes, tries to reveal the reality of supernatural phenomena. "In the meantime, the thought of a person such as Tagore can guide and send messages on the path to excellence. Tagore considers the unity of humanity with divinity to be the ultimate goal of the path, and imagines that a multitude of people has the divine unit, and the true backing of this spiritual alliance is love.
Man is, above all else, a lover, and he has love, freedom, and perfection with man. Love is another name for understanding perfection.This perception of the existence, which leads to the unity of man with the whole - the penetrating soul: "In love, the differences are overwhelming, and the human soul brings about its perfection, as it comes and ends in the infinite tower.
Therefore, love is a great prosperity. This conception and this look in the world can have clear and implicit messages for education. These messages are sometimes expressed by themselves, sometimes by other people, and in this article, they intend to include additional implicit messages in addition to their expression and extraction.The present article seeks to examine the educational outlook of this noble poet of the Indian subcontinent, in the framework of his worldview and his philosophy.A study of the specific angles of life, experiences, and ideas of this thinker makes us aware of the value of his thoughts and activities and allows us to apply the results and implications of the plan to the present.
 

Research methodology

Descriptive, analytical, and inference is a descriptive method. In theoretical foundations, Latin resources and mainly scientific articles were used. In the part of educational findings and ideas, in addition to the point of view of Tagore and other scholars, the implications and implications of the scholar were based on his theoretical foundations.
 

Discussion

Education without foundation and especially philosophical foundations cannot be trusted and cited. Most of the principles and methods of education in the world, and even Iran, are based on Western foundations. But with the knowledge of the boundaries of knowledge, it can be used along with Western, Iranian and Islamic foundations of Eastern ideas like India. Because in Tagore's thought is devoted to issues that are valuable, such as unity, empathy and unity of human societies; finally, Indian cultural similarities - at least with the West - with Iran, concerns and similar issues to the peoples of this region, such as identity preservation while universal unity. Globalization can have good messages for educational systems, especially Iran.

   In the field of education of Tagore, education is regarded as a means of deliverance, escape, and the means of human excellence on a global and all-wise and comprehensive level.
  "The conditions of education are imposed on children," says Tagore, "those who have not committed a sin and do not deserve to be punished. Do not allow the goals of education to fail due to its methods. The flow of education, even the most modest, is easy and natural, with the least suffering (Roy, 1916). In the training and skills of women and girls, Tagore was a precursor between the points and the paternal who, while identifying the vacuum of neglect of the role of girls and their disastrous consequences, set foot. Tagore believes that the coherence of school with society is a necessity and we have to link rational education to artistic and professional education that deals with the emotions and feelings of a person. Therefore, he himself included music and literature in his curriculum (Tripathi, V.: 2011).The importance and priority of art in the teaching of the Tagore is that of the child's imagination and the uniformity of its diverse personality. Art is for him both the language of education and its content and relation with the general unity and spirituality. And finally believed that nationalistic tendencies with global thoughts and feelings are not necessarily inconsistent. The ideal human being in has the benefit of a true spirit that fulfills regional and national interests, and its geography of democracy is transcendental and even beyond. In fact, Tagore believes in cultural integration and global unity and denounces aggressive nationalism (Das, D, 2014).

Conclusion


  India is a region in southern Asia. The vast ocean of wondrous philosophies, cultures, religions, and history that brings with it a sense of enthusiasm, joy, and pleasure to anyone.
 Rabindranath Tagore Tagore is the most experienced Indian pedal. The artistic and wise poet of the artist, who, with a single copy of his predecessors, and the benefit of other cultures and new ideas, was able to make progress in the development of human thought and civilization, and to contribute to the promotion and promotion of great human values ​​in his own contribution.
His multidimensional philosophy is an open and deep approach to the truth of the universe, the world and the universe; a comprehensive view of life and the indissoluble bond of all its elements; it combines philosophy with mysticism, which teaches infinite love, spiritual aspirations, and absolute liberty. The pedagogical views of Tagore are reflected in his Shantiniktan, the University of Visawabarathi and the Sherinakatan Center, and his works and life. He believes in the possibility of recognizing the truth that exists throughout the world and the existence of a serous man. Education is a flow of understanding of this fact, and it wants to establish a strong and continuous relationship between human flourishing. It is only a free and creative person who can use his capacity, under the guidance of mentors and mentors, to understand the inner world of the universe and to help achieve the individual and collective supreme educational goals in various fields of national and international scholarship.
 
 
 
References
 

Abercrombie, N.; Hill, S.; Turner, B.S. Dictionary of Sociology. Penguin, London and New York. 1994.
Aruma, Marie J. Tagore's Philosophy of Life, A study of Sadhana; Rupkatha journal on interdisciplinary studies in humanities.  2 (4), 504 – 512. 2010.
Audi, Robert. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Second ed., Cambridge University Press.1999.
Bhattacharya, Asoke. Tagore on the Right Education for India; Asia-pacific journal of social science.1 (2), 21-47. 2009.
Collinson, D., Plant, K., & Wilkinson, R.  Fifty Eastern Thinkers; Routledge & Taylor & Francis Group < /em>, London and New York.2002.
Das, Dreamsea. Educational Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore; International journal of research in humanities arts and literature.2 (6). 1-4. 2004.
Davidson, Arnold I. Spiritual Exercises and Ancient Philosophy: An Introduction to Pierre Hadot; Critical inquiry. 16(3) 475-482. 1990.
Dehbashi, Ali, The Recognition of Rabindranat Tagore, Nika Publishing House, 2009.
Devi, R. Rama. Education and Values in Modern Indian Thought; Thesis Submitted for the award of the Degree of doctor of philosophy, department of philosophy and religious studies, Andhra university, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.2013.
Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. The Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A. 2001.
Ekanem, Francis E. Educational Existentialism, journal of humanities and social sciences (JHSS).2 (2)22-27. 2012.
Glaysher, F. The Poet's Religion of Rabindranath Tagore. Rupkatha journal on interdisciplinary studies in humanities.3 (4)400-416. 2011.
Haq, Kaiser. The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore; Asiatic.4 (1), 45-53. 2010.
Jha, N.D. Rabindranath Tagore; Pareis, Enesco: international bureau of education; xxiv (314), 603-619. 1994.
Jyoti Sarma, Arup. Humanistic Philosophy of Tagore. KRITIKE   VOLUME SIX   NUMBER ONE.6 (1), 50-66. 2012.
Kikha Farzaneh, Ahmad Reza, Foundations of Rabandranat Tagore's Philosophical-Mystical Thought. Journal of Indian Subcontinent Studies. (6) 3. 115-138, 1390
Koomar Roy, B. Rabindranath Tagore, the Man and His Poetry. With an Introduction by Hamilton W. Mabie, Dodd, Mead and company, New York. 1916.
Lal Basu, Ratan. Viewpoint: The Eco-Ethical Views of Tagore and Amartya Sen. Culture Mandala: Bulletin of the Centre for East-West cultural and economic studies.8 (2).56-61. 2009
Majumdar, Sisir K. Rabindranath’s thought on Science.Frontier.44, 11-14. 2011.
Moharil, Avinash. Mysticism in Rabindranath Tagore's Gitanjali. International referred research journal.2 (4), 21-32. 2012.
Mukherjee, Padhika. Rabindranath Tagore's Gitanjali: A Source of Experiencing Peace and Harmony. National monthly refereed journal of research in arts and education.1 (4), 11-18. 2011.
O’Connell, Kathleen M. Tagore and Education: Creativity, Mutuality and Survival.Asiatic.4 (1)65-76. 2010
Patteti, Adam Paul. Indian Thought and Personality Development, International Journal of Education and Psychological Research (IJEPR). 2(3), 32-35. 2013.
Radhakrishnan, S. The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore; Macmillan and co., London.1919.
Rathnam, Anbananthan.Whole Teacher: A Holistic Education Perspective on Krishnamurti’s Educational Philosophy. A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy: Department of curriculum, teaching, and learning. Ontario institute for studies in education, university of Toronto.2013.
Rushiraj A., B. Tagore's Contribution in Education; Indian Journal of Applied Research, .3(3), 200-201. 2013.
Singh, R. & Singh, R.S. Rabindranath Tagore's Contribution in Education; VSRD international journal of technical & non-technical research, vol. IV, issue viii, august, pp. 201- 208. 2013.
Statt, David A. The Concise Dictionary of Psychology.3rd.ed. Routledge, London and New York. 1918.
Tagore, Rabindranat, Sadbend, Translated by Abraham Purdavood, Tehran, University of Tehran, 1340.
Tagore, Rabindranath. Sādhanā: The Realization of Life. The Macmillian Company, New York.1915.
Tripathi, Vandana. The Relevance of Tagore's Concept of Education in Contemporary Times; international referred research journal.1 (17), 12-21. 2011.

 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tagore
  • Unity
  • Empathy
  • Education
  1. Abercrombie, N.; Hill, S.; Turner, B.S.Dictionary of Sociology. Penguin, London and New York. 1994.
  2. Aruma, Marie J. Tagore's Philosophy of Life, A study of Sadhana; Rupkatha journal on interdisciplinary studies in humanities.  2 (4), 504 – 512. 2010.
  3. Audi, Robert. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Second ed., Cambridge University Press.1999.
  4. Bhattacharya, Asoke. Tagore on the Right Education for India; Asia-pacific journal of social science.1 (2), 21-47. 2009.
  5. Collinson, D., Plant, K., & Wilkinson, R.  Fifty Eastern Thinkers; Routledge & Taylor & Francis Group, London and New York.2002.
  6. Das, Dreamsea. Educational Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore; International journal of research in humanities arts and literature.2 (6). 1-4. 2004.
  7. Davidson, Arnold I. Spiritual Exercises and Ancient Philosophy: An Introduction to Pierre Hadot; Critical inquiry. 16(3) 475-482. 1990.
  8. Dehbashi, Ali, The Recognition of Rabindranat Tagore, Nika Publishing House, 2009.
  9. Devi, R. Rama. Education and Values in Modern Indian Thought; Thesis Submitted for the award of the Degree of doctor of philosophy, department of philosophy and religious studies, Andhra university, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.2013.
  10. Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. The Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A. 2001.
  11. Ekanem, Francis E. Educational Existentialism, journal of humanities and social sciences (JHSS).2 (2)22-27. 2012.
  12. Glaysher, F. The Poet's Religion of Rabindranath Tagore. Rupkatha journal on interdisciplinary studies in humanities.3 (4)400-416. 2011.
  13. Haq, Kaiser. The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore; Asiatic.4 (1), 45-53. 2010.
  14. Jha, N.D. Rabindranath Tagore; Pareis, Enesco: international bureau of education; xxiv (314), 603-619. 1994.
  15. Jyoti Sarma, Arup. Humanistic Philosophy of Tagore. KRITIKE   VOLUME SIX   NUMBER ONE.6 (1), 50-66. 2012.
  16. Kikha Farzaneh, Ahmad Reza, Foundations of Rabandranat Tagore's Philosophical-Mystical Thought. Journal of Indian Subcontinent Studies. (6) 3. 115-138, 1390
  17. Koomar Roy, B. Rabindranath Tagore, the Man and His Poetry. With an Introduction by Hamilton W. Mabie, Dodd, Mead and company, New York. 1916.
  18. Lal Basu, Ratan. Viewpoint: The Eco-Ethical Views of Tagore and Amartya Sen. Culture Mandala: Bulletin of the Centre for East-West cultural and economic studies.8 (2).56-61. 2009
  19. Majumdar, Sisir K. Rabindranath’s thought on Science.Frontier.44, 11-14. 2011.
  20. Moharil, Avinash. Mysticism in Rabindranath Tagore's Gitanjali. International referred research journal.2 (4), 21-32. 2012.
  21. Mukherjee, Padhika. Rabindranath Tagore's Gitanjali: A Source of Experiencing Peace and Harmony. National monthly refereed journal of research in arts and education.1 (4), 11-18. 2011.
  22. O’Connell, Kathleen M. Tagore and Education: Creativity, Mutuality and Survival.Asiatic.4 (1)65-76. 2010
  23. Patteti, Adam Paul. Indian Thought and Personality Development, International Journal of Education and Psychological Research (IJEPR). 2(3), 32-35. 2013.
  24. Radhakrishnan, S. The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore; Macmillan and co., London.1919.
  25. Rathnam, Anbananthan.Whole Teacher: A Holistic Education Perspective on Krishnamurti’s Educational Philosophy. A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy: Department of curriculum, teaching, and learning. Ontario institute for studies in education, university of Toronto.2013.
  26. Rushiraj A., B. Tagore's Contribution in Education; Indian Journal of Applied Research, .3(3), 200-201. 2013.
  27. Singh, R. & Singh, R.S. Rabindranath Tagore's Contribution in Education; VSRD international journal of technical & non-technical research, vol. IV, issue viii, august, pp. 201- 208. 2013.
  28. Statt, David A. The Concise Dictionary of Psychology.3rd.ed. Routledge, London and New York. 1918.
  29. Tagore, Rabindranat, Sadbend, Translated by Abraham Purdavood, Tehran, University of Tehran, 1340.
  30. Tagore, Rabindranath. Sādhanā: The Realization of Life. The Macmillian Company, New York.1915.
  31. Tripathi, Vandana. The Relevance of Tagore's Concept of Education in Contemporary Times; international referred research journal.1 (17), 12-21. 2011.