داستان آرش، بازماندۀ اسطورۀ «ایزد روشنایی کماندار» در اقوام هندواروپایی باستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه پیام نور

10.22111/jsr.2020.5569

چکیده

داستان آرش کمانگیر که در متون ایرانی، نخست‌بار اشاراتی اساطیری در یشت‌ها بدان می‌شود، اندک‌اندک با جامه‌گردانی به روایتی حماسی به بخشی از روایت ایرانیِ تاریخ ایران مبدّل شد. در پژوهش‌های دوران معاصر، آرش اغلب دارای هویتی پارتی و نیای اشکانیان یا شاهزاده‌ای اشکانی یا توتم اشکانیان انگاشته‌شده‌است. پژوهش‌هایی نیز داستان آرش را نه روایتی ایرانی بلکه روایتی هندوایرانی و حتی پیش‌آریایی دانسته‌اند. مقالۀ حاضر، در پی ارائۀ پاسخی تازه به این مسئله است که هویت آرش کمانگیر و ماهیت اسطورۀ او چیست و آیا آرش شخصیتی در تاریخ ایران باستان یا ایزدی در باورهای کهن آریایی و هندواروپایی بوده‌است؟ بدین منظور با توصیف و تحلیل شواهد مکتسب از داده‌های باستان‌شناسی، متون تاریخی و دینی و ملاحظات فقه‌اللغه و با تکیه بر نظریاتی چون نظریۀ معماهای نخستین و نظریۀ ایزدان سه‌کُنِش به اسطورۀ آرش نگریسته‌می‌شود. نتیجۀ این بررسی، آن است که داستان آرش، نه روایتی تاریخی در عصر ایرانی و به‌طور مشخص عصر پارتی، بلکه روایتی اساطیری و بسیار دیرینه در عصر هندواروپایی است که که از سه معمای اساطیریِ «چرخۀ بستن و گشودن روشنایی و تاریکی»، «چرخۀ پیدا شدن و ناپدید شدن مرزها» و «چرخۀ بستن و گشودن آب‌ها» برآمده و شخصیت آرش، آمیزۀ سه ایزد روحانیت و فرمانروایی (روشنایی)، جنگاوری (مرز و زمین) و باروری (آب و گیاه) است

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The story of Arash, a Survivor of the myth: "God of Archer Lighting" in the ancient Indo-European tribes

نویسنده [English]

  • Ebrahim Vasheghani Farahani
Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, payame noor university
چکیده [English]

 
1-      Introduction
   Arash shot and threw tension, opened the water and plant, and revealed the border, and the border was itself, water and plants.These are the basic components of the story of Arash,    which are repeated in a lot of Iranian texts, all or partly.The story of archer Arash wiche referred to in Iranian texts firstly in the form of mythology in Yashtha, gradually became part of the Iranian narrative of Iran history transforming into an epic narrative. Arash in contemporary researchs, often has the Parthian identity and he is considered the ancestor of the Parthians or Parthian-princes who have been courageous in disposing of the Northeast invaders. The name Arash, in the same vein, is considered to be the equivalent of the Arashk (founder and head of the Parthians), or it means a Bear or a Totem of the Parthians. Few researches do not regard the story of Arash as an Iranian narrative, but it is a narrative of Indo-Iranian and even Pre-Aryan, and it considers the equivalents of Vishnu in Indian mythology and the meaning of "Arash" is also brilliant and bright. In this article, for the first time, the author looks at the myth of Arash, from the perspective of the theory (The First Riddles of Otto Schrader) and the theory (The Gods Of The Three Actions of Georges Dumezil), and he is looking for the first and oldest Indo-Iranian God by analyzing and adapting the gods and mythological narratives of Persia and India, as a result, with the adaptation of that old God, we will find with the European gods, the oldest God and the oldest mythological narrative of the early Indo-European era, which Arash's story of that myth has come to us. Also, some considerations of etymology and historical and archaeological data, such as coinage, are other contributors to the theory of this article. The final result of this study is that the story of Arash is not a historical narrative in the Iranian era, and does not belong to the Party of the Era, but rather a mythological and very old mythological narrative in the era of the Indo-European, whose narrative structure, based on Otto Schrader's theory, is a mixture of three mythological mysteries: "The cycle of closing and opening the lighting and darkness", "The cycle of revealing and hiding the borders" and "The cycle of clamping a
nd opening water". And according to Georges Dumezil, the personality of Arash is a combination of three gods of clergy and kingdom, warrior (Borderand Land), and fertility (water and plants).
 
2-      Research methodology
The method of this research is a combination of description and analysis based on documentavers in the field of Iranian, Indo-Iranians and Indo-European mythology and epics. It also exploits archaeological data extracted from rock banners, coins and seals containing information about the Aryan goddesses. furthermore, in this article, By the aid of  first puzzles theory of Otto schrader and Albert Joseph Carnoy in Arash myth structure analyzing,  and Trifunctional Gods hypothesis George Damézil in Arash character studies, were applied by researchers.
 
3-      Discussion
Mircha Eliade (1362: 14) and Claude Levi Strauss (2001: 1-62) believe that among myths there are fundamental siblings. Accordingly, the myths of the peoples of the homeland have sprung up and separated from the more ancient mythological myth in the age of the tribes. Albert Joseph Carnouille, and before him, Otto Sherard, have also pointed to the deep truth that most myths are expanded into a few initial riddles (Joseph Carnouille, 2004: 120-121). The first riddles are questions in the human mind that you are known to be. Each race, in accordance with the requirements of its biomass and the story of its collection, has some mysteries about existence. These riddles in the era of the split of that race into smaller breeds, cultivate in different ecosystems and with new storytelling.Ancient Indo-European Ancestors, according to the dark and dark climax of their first, whose vague memory of it is preserved in the image of Iranwij / Aryavaj Land (Minooye kherad, 1354: 62; Vendidad, 1997: Fargad 1, Section 2), Brightness is the most important and effective agent and agent in They saw their lives. All Indo-European people believed in masses of goddesses and goddesses of light, such as Jurmard, Maysara, Azar, Teshtar, Day, Yam / Jam, Thor, Zeus, and Jupiter. For this reason, the fundamental raison d'etre is - as you are God - from their point of view was a question: "How to shut the light and darkness". The other rumors were essentially another interpretation of this fundamental supermassive, such as "the cycle of good and evil," "the cycle of life and death," "the cycle of health and disease," "the cycle of ugliness and beauty," "the cycle of gains and losses". In all these riddles, one side of the puzzle is clear and the other is dark. Some riddles also find their answer to the fundamental rage of light and darkness, such as the "Boundaries of the Boundaries" and "The Closure and Opening of the Water". Indo-Iranians, on the one hand, were fighting with indigenous peoples of India and Iran, and on the other hand they defended their fields and pastures against the Indo-European tribes that followed them. For this reason, they were always disturbed by the "find and disappear borders" cycle. The Indo-Iranians also faced the farmer and livestock farmer with the "water closure" cycle, which is essential for plant growth. According to the Aryans, they were the goddess of light, guarding their borders, and ensuring the abundance of water and fertility of their farms and their flocks. In fact, Arash the god is a light that throws the rays of his rays, fills the boundaries and throws clouds into the rain.
 
4-      Conclusion
Although  the story of archer Arash is often considered to be a party identity and Arash is considered as the Parthian Princes, who threw enemies to the beat of their fists from Iran's borders, this story is not only a Parthian story but also is older from Iranian and Indo-Iranians  period and the story of Arash should be a new executive of the very long-standing mystic mythology in the Hindu beliefs that its nature is brightness. And his act is a Shooting to protect the borders of the people of Hinduism and to give the boom and fertility to their lives.
 
 
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arash
  • Vishnu
  • Teshtar
  • Tir
  • Ariksha