پس از استقلال پاکستان و شکلگیری نظام جمهوری مبتنی بر شریعت اسلام، اوضاع داخلی ناآرام و نظام سیاسی متزلزل در این کشور وجود داشته است. معضل قابل تامل پاکستان، مربوط به ساختار داخلی این کشور و دخالت بیگانگان است. مناقشههای قومی و سرزمینی، بیثباتی سیاسی، نداشتن توسعه اقتصادی و اجتماعی، تهدیدهای فراملیتی، جرایم سازمانیافته و بالاخره رقابت قدرتهای منطقهای و فرامنطقهای مهمترین چالشهای امنیتی در پاکستان بوده است. با توجه به شرایط کنونی پاکستان، این نوشتار در صدد پاسخ به این پرسش است که پس از استقلال پاکستان، چه عواملی زمینههای شکلگیری بحران امنیتی در این کشور را ایجاد کردهاند؟ روش پژوهش تحلیلی توصیفی و ابزار گردآوری دادهها نیز کتابخانهای است. مهمترین یافتههای پژوهش حاکی از این است که در پاکستان ترکیب پیچیده و چندلایهای از عوامل داخلی و خارجی که تأثیرات تقویتکنندهای بر یکدیگر دارند، باعث شکلگیری بحران امنیتی شده است. در این نوشتار استدلال شده است که پاکستان بهسوی یک حکومت چندپاره پیش رفته و مداخله مستمر کشورهای بیگانه برای پشتیبانی یا سرکوب گروههای تروریستی، به ناامنی و افزایش منازعات دامن زده است. نوآوری این پژوهش، تببین تحولات پاکستان از منظر مطالعات امنیتی جهان سوم و رویکرد لیتل است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Effective Factors on the Continuation of Security Crisis in Pakistan and its consequences
Following the changes in the structure of international power, the sphere of influence of the international powers has also changed, and, consequently, new regions of power have been formed in the world. One of the most important new areas is the Southwest Asia. Southwest Asia is, in fact, the intercontinental zone of the three continents of Asia, Europe and Africa, consisting of five geopolitical areas: Central Asia, the Subcontinent, the Caucasus, the Persian Gulf, and the Middle East. In this geopolitical area, due to the South-East Asia and East create linkage to the Middle East and Europe, the neighboring world powers, the Central Asian region and the Caucasus. So that, Pakistan has been referred to in most geopolitical views (Mehrabi & EghtedarNejad, 2014: 200-201). The Islamic Republic of Pakistan became independent in August 1947 after the independence of India. it has not been so calm since its independence. Today it is home to more than 180 million people in Asia's populous countries. Pakistan has always been engaging in long-standing rivalry with India (Ganguly & Kapur, 2010: 10), and in addition to border disputes on the Kashmir issue with deep historical and religious backgrounds, for many other reasons, this country has witnessed much unrest after independence. [The complex social and political environment in Pakistan, the ethnic and tribal nature of its social structure, militarists involvement in political affairs, the interference of foreign powers, and above all the religious conflicts with tribal rivalries with the interference of foreign powers, in particular the United States and Saudi Arabia, have been a good environment for Wahhabism growth (Rashydi & shahghale, 2012: 94)]. Given these reasons, there are many extremist groups that have emerged in Pakistan that threaten not only their security, but also the security of the region and even the world, which Iran is also exposed to. Accordingly, the research question is that after the independence of Pakistan, what factors contributed to a security crisis therein?
2- Research methodology
In the organization of research, firstly, should be addressed to the Third World National Security Theory. And then, the issue of the independence of the developments in this region, or the dependence on the security system of Saudi Arabia, India, Iran and the US will be evaluated in the context of an appropriate categorization with the Southwest Asian School of Security. Finally, the components of this theory on Pakistan and its impact on the political and security environment of the actors involved in the region will be assessed as a conclusion with the explanatory and descriptive method.
Pakistan has a multifaceted identity, which has suffering coupled with political instability, the inability of the central government to exercise domestic power, the increasing power of ethnic-religious loyalty, and the plight of civilian identity. Of course, sectarian extremism in this country alone is not due to the internal status of the country, but it can also be caused by regional developments (Sadri Alibaloo et.al. 2014: 10). All of these factors, in particular, the level of illiteracy and weakness of the economic fabric of these areas, have caused violent movements against the central government, which itself is in severe disruption in domestic structures. Therefore, the Pakistani government has little control over the borders of the country, and these instabilities directly threaten the security of the country (Fair & Chalk, 2006: 337).
Based on the Third World Security Studies approach, the following factors together have seen internal conflicts in Pakistan that gradually diminished the legitimacy of this government: the social and religious situation, the economic situation and the legitimacy crisis of the government. In such a situation, the security of Pakistan has also declined by reducing political coherence. Hence, if we are to look at the domestic issues of Pakistan in terms of the Little Indicators, we find that the country, through ethnic and religious conflicts, along with the weakening of the central government, has led the nature of the government to a few states in which legitimacy is weakened and there is no legitimate authority and power. Despite government repressions, there are constantly conflicts between different groups with each other and with the central government to expand its influence and power. In the external dimension, Pakistan has experienced countless downsides over the past few decades; a long-standing controversy with three direct military confrontations with India over the region of Jammu and Kashmir, the traditional influence on Afghanistan's development, direct support and Indirect from dozens of radical religious groups in the region, disagreement and cooperation with Iran, strategic partnership with the United States and alignment with arabic countries of the Persian Gulf are among the characteristics of Pakistani foreign policy, which paves the way for the role of the various actors (Ketabi et.al 2016: 10).
Security conditions in Pakistan are affected by instability in many areas, and the potential for conflict in the country is increasing. The impact of transnational threats or transnational challenges, such as radical Islamism, is only part of the equation, and these increase the risk of direct conflict between countries in the region, including with Afghanistan. Non-traditional security challenges impose the greatest risk to regional stability. Hence, the security of South Asian countries is more threatened by domestic actors than threatened by foreign actors. Of course, in some cases, the combination of complex and multi-layered internal and external factors leads to a security crisis, and internal crises such as the weakness of legitimacy, the lack of integration and weakness of the nation state provide the context for political divisions. The South Asian security environment also suggests an asymmetric balance of power in which is evident the intervention of a strong country on weak country in the form of support of strong country from a particular group or activity against it or the desire of a particular group within a weak country to benefit from alliance with a strong country for overcoming rivals. The role of Saudi Arabia, India, Iran, and the United States can be analyzed from this perspective. For America, countering terrorism and the non-expansion of geopolitical influence of China, Russia and Iran is important. On relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan, it is necessary to mention, due to its geographical and its cultural-identity affiliations, has not been taken into account. This is the point that was repeatedly expressed by Iranian foreign policy analysts as a weak point. The most important factors that focusing on ideological interests in the relations between the two countries over the years provide as follows: Mistakes caused by lack of attention to diverse regional capacities, lack of attention to religious differences and lack of expert decision making and lack of use of specialists. These issues undermined the economic and cultural interests. Therefore, for strategic alignment with Pakistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran can adopt a cultural-economic approach to relations with the countries of the region, while avoiding disagreements, cultural commonalities and economic needs of the parties should be taken into account.
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