این نوشتار به روش تحلیل مقایسه ای در صدد پاسخ گویی به این سوال است که وجوه افتراق و اشتراک آزادی در قانون اساسی ایران و پاکستان کدام است؟ بیتردید قانون اساسی هر کشور مهمترین سند راهبردی و سند شناسایی آرمانها و ارزشهای هر کشور و مهمترین مرجع برای شناخت اصول اساسی کشورها میباشد. در قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی ایران و پاکستان به آزادی به مثابه یک حق فطری بسیار اهمیت داده شده است و آزادیها و حدود آن را به طور دقیق بیان نموده است. قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی ایران و پاکستان اشتراکات فراوانی در زمینه آزادی دارند، این اشتراکات عبارتند از: آزادی احزاب و جمعیتها، آزادی تشکیل اجتماعات و راهپیماییها، آزادی در انتخاب شغل، آزادیهای مربوط به اقلیتهای مذهبی، آزادی مربوط به اقوام و قبایل، آزادی عقیده، آزادی مطبوعات، آزادی فرق اسلامی. نتیجه بدست آمده از این پژوهش آن که هر دو کشور جمهوری اسلامی ایران و پاکستان در خصوص آزادی و حدود و ثغور آن بسیار نزدیک به هم هستند و ریشه این تشابه، تأثر هر دو کشور از مبانی اسلامی و جایگاه مهم مبانی اسلام در اعتقادات هر دو کشور میباشد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Comparative Study of Freedom in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan
One of the key human rights issues is the issue of freedom. This debate and its variants, including freedom of opinion, freedom of expression, ... have also been the subject of debate among thinkers and thinkers. Today, all civilized states claim freedom, but each offers a different definition, but regarding the principle of freedom as a citizenship, there is a disagreement over the scope and scope of freedom. Throughout history we will acknowledge that there have always been debates about the limits and degrees of freedom that vary with time and social rituals and types; the scope of this debate has focused on human slavery. And once in freedom of expression and opinion, and in other times freedom of religion, etc. It is worth noting that no thinker in history has accepted the unconditional freedom and the major controversy over boundaries. And the freedom to do so, which in many cases has been a pretext for law enforcement, and many have been given the freedom to do some homework. They refused and some advocated for freedom and ignored many rights of the people and society, so the debate over freedom has always been about freedom.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan are similar in many respects because of their close ties and united religious roots. One of these parallels is freedom as one of the most prominent citizenship rights. The main question of this study is to compare the constitution of Iran and Pakistan with the comparative study of the importance of this issue and to compare the weaknesses and strengths of these two countries in comparison with the laws of the two countries.
2. Research Method
This research is a descriptive - comparative study and the method of collecting information through library method is obtained by downloading legal and legal software and authentic books. The authors, after extracting the contents and comparing the bulletins collected in the fundamental rights of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Pakistan, determined the extent of freedom in the two countries of Iran and Pakistan and the extent of their similarities and differences.
One of the most important issues in society is the issue of freedom and its importance to the extent that it is addressed in the constitution of most countries. The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Pakistan have also taken a special look at the issue of freedom as one of the basic needs of society, and this has been well reflected in the constitution of these two countries. The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran has considered the issue of freedom in various respects and has addressed several aspects of the constitution in a number of discussions on the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran with regard to freedom. Freedom of parties and associations, freedom of assembly and march, freedom of choice of religion, freedom of religious minorities, freedom of kin and tribal freedom of thought, freedom of the press, freedom of Islamic freedom The constitution has been discussed in detail and its scope has been specified in addition to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and the Constitution of the Republic of Pakistan has explicitly considered and specified its scope and scope. What is certain, however, is that both the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan, despite their keen attention to the issue of liberty, have in no way denied freedom unconditionally and, along with this important point, set the boundaries of freedom. So as not to disturb other people in society.
In a comparative study of freedom in Iranian and Pakistani law, we came to the conclusion that the constitution of Iran and Pakistan in various respects, including freedom of parties and peoples, freedom of assembly and march, freedom to choose a job, and related freedoms. Religious minorities, tribal freedoms, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, the foundations of freedom in Islam are very close to one another, and the two countries have not considered freedom as absolute and unconditional. Various point to the fundamental point that freedom is to the extent that it is not contrary to the rights of others. But the origin of this must be traced back to the teachings of Islam and its neighborliness, as both the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan have based their rule on being Islamic, and Islam has emphasized freedom in its aspect. Different countries have never considered freedom absolute and on the other hand, due to the proximity of the two countries of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Pakistan, the effects of these two countries have been great.
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