تحلیل و نقد تأثیرپذیری مفسران قادیانیه از علم جدید در تفسیر قرآن

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای تفسیرتطبیقی جامعه المصطفی العالمیه

2 استادیار گروه قرآن و حدیث پژوهشگاه بین المللی المصطفی(نویسنده مسئول)

3 دانشیار گروه فلسفه و کلام جامعه المصطفی العالمیه

10.22111/jsr.2020.29525.1933

چکیده

قرن نوزدهم برای مسلمانان شبه­ قاره هند دورانی پراز آشوب و فتنه بود، آنان در این دوره به زوال و انحطاط سیاسی دچار شدند. استعمار انگلیس برای ضربه زدن به مسلمانان از هر نوع ابزاری استفاده کرد، مبشران مسیحی زیر سایه استعمار انگلیس، برای تضعیف عقاید و افکار مسلمانان به اصول اساسی دین اسلام حمله می کردندو دانشمندان مسلمان را به مناظره می کشاندند. از سویی دیگر به­­علت پیش­رفت علوم تجربی، گرایش به این که هرچیزی را با تجربه بسنجند بوجود آمد، از طرفی دیگر استعمار انگلیس جریان نوپدید قادیانیه را بوجود آورد. غلام احمد قادیانی ادعاهای گوناگونی داشت و برای اثبات آنها به آیات و روایات متوسل شدو در تفسیر قرآن، برخی از اصول را جعل کرد که از میان اینها وحی و مکاشفه را اساس اصلی قرار داده­است؛ بنابراین مفسران قادیانیه طبق این اصل قرآن را براساس الهامی که مدعی بودند، تفسیرکرده­اند. غلام احمد و پیروان وی در تفسیر آیات به شیوه­هایی که به اثبات ادعاهای غلام احمد کمک می کرد، استمداد جسته­اند. یکی از این شیوه­ها، بهره گیری از علم جدید است. لذا غلام احمد و مفسران قادیانیه آیاتی را که بر هدف آنان دلالت داشت، براساس علم جدید تفسیر کرده اند. بنابراین هدف اصلی و مساله بنیادین نوشتار حاضر مورد تحلیل و نقد قرار دادن تأثیرپذیری مفسران قادیانیه از علم جدید در تفسیر قرآن کریم و روش نگارش این مقاله، روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis and critique of the impressionability of Qadiani exegetes from Modern science in the interpretation of the holy Quran

نویسندگان [English]

  • tahira batool 1
  • raees azam shahed 2
  • Izzuddeen Rezanejad 3
1 Ph.D. Student of comparative exegesis Dept, Jamia Al-Mustafa
2 Assistant professor of Quran and Hadith Dept, Jamia Al-Mustafa.
3 Associate professor of Philosophy and Theology Dept, Jamia Al-Mustafa.
چکیده [English]

 
1-
 
1-     Introduction
In the nineteenth century, some Muslim scholars experienced the apparent contradiction between science and religion. To resolve this problem, they turned to the scientific interpretation of Qur'anic verses and teachings. They attempted to quantify Qur'anic teachings such as revelation, jinn, and miracle etc. according to scientific standards. Some even came to deny and justify these teachings, because they (teachings) weren't proven through experience and sense. At the same time, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani claimed prophethood and to prove his prophethood he claimed to receive revelations and to have contact with the God and the unseen world. To further prove his claim, he used to report about earthquakes, diseases and plagues, etc., but these were natural disasters and therefore couldn't be considered as the miracles of Ghulam Ahmad. So, after him, the successors and commentators of Qadianiyah came to justify verses from the Qur'an that signified the miracles of the divine prophets and thus tried to put the miracles claimed by Ghulam Ahmad in line with prophets' miracles.
In light of these findings, the present study seeks to answer the following questions: How has modern science influenced Qadianiyah commentators in the interpretation of the Quran? Which verses have they interpreted with the method of scientific interpretation? What is their most important goal of the scientific interpretation of the verses of the Qur'an? When we find the answers to these questions, we will analyze and critique the arguments and interpretations of the Qadianiyah commentators so that the ignorant will not be influenced by their misinterpretations and fallacies, and the path will be clear for the seekers of truth and guidance.
 
2-     Research methodology
One of the methods of interpreting the Qur'an is to use modern science. Interpretation means lifting the veil from something and in the case of the Qur'an, discerning and uncovering the meaning of difficult words and the purpose of a verse. science here denotes to empirical science. A science that examines the authenticity or inaccuracy of theories and laws related to nature. The purpose of scientific interpretation of Qur'an is to explain Qur'anic verses by using empirical science. Muslim scholars have opposed or agreed to the interpretation of the Qur'anic verses by empirical science and have provided specific definitions (such as adaptation, scientific interpretation, extraction of knowledge from the Qur'an, the implementation of sciences, and the application of sciences to the Qur'an). (Rezai Isfahani, 274, 1375)
The view of the commentators about the scientific method is divided into three types:
First: Proponents; A large number of prominent commentators advocates the scientific interpretation of the Qur'an. Avicenna, Abu Hamed Ghazali, Allama Tabarsi, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Ibn Abi al-Fadlal al-Morsi, Badr al-Din az-Zarkashi, Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti, Mohammed Baqir al-Majlisi, Mulla Sadra, and Tantawy, etc. are considered the proponents of scientific interpretation of Qur'an. (Ibid, 309, 1375)
Second: Opponents; Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi, Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout, Al-Dahabi, etc. are the opponents of the scientific interpretation method. (Ibid, 325, 1375)
Third: Detail oriented proponents in scientific interpretation; Jamal al-Din Asad Abadi, Muhammad Qutb, Rashid Reza, Mohammad Mostafa al-Maraghi, Muhammad Hossein Tabatabai, Muhammad Hadi Ma'rifat, Nasir Makarim Shirazi, Ja'far sobhani, and others are from this category. (Ibid, 327-347, 1375)
Each of these scholars has established the conditions for accepting or rejecting the scientific interpretation of the Qur'an.
This research has been written with a descriptive-analytical method and technically it's based on library research. At first, the data has been collected from first-hand sources, then described, analyzed, and criticized, and finally presented as a scientific report.
 
3-     Discussion
The Qadiani movement was founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani in Ludhiana, India. Ghulam Ahmad claimed to be the Messiah, Mahdi, Reformist, and a subordinate Prophet of the Prophet Muhammad.After his death, Nur al-Din was elected as the first caliph. Nur al-Din died in 1914.After him, the followers of the congregation disagreed among themselves on Khilafat issue and were divided into two groups: the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Ahmadiyya Islamic Lahore Association. Bashir al-Din, son of Ghulam Ahmad was sworn in as the second caliph of the Qadiani group and Mawlawi Mohammad Ali was elected as the emir of the Lahori group.
Ghulam Ahmad interpreted some of the Qur'anic verses. The Qadianis compiled his quotations in line with Qur'anic verses in a collection called "Tafsir" in four volumes that got published by Idara-e-Musannifeen Rabwah, Pakistan. This Tafsir attempts to interpret the verses according to the state of their time. To document his ideas and thoughts, he interprets some verses according to his personal views and criticizes and rejects the views of his opponents. According to him the secret of success and happiness in both worlds lies in acting upon his seerah. He presents inappropriate interpretation of the Qur'anic verses. (Muhammad Imran, 104, 2016) For example: Surah Takwir verse 4 (وَإِذَا الْعِشَارُ عُطِّلَت) says: "And when the pregnant camels shall be neglected”. According to his interpretation, this verse talks about trains. (Qadiani, Bita/4, 540)
Surah Takwir verse 6 (وَإِذَا الْبِحَارُ سُجِّرَتْ) says: "And when the seas boil over”. He interprets this verse as when agriculture will grow well. (Qadiani, Bita/4,544)
Qadiani compiled the commentary lectures of Hakim Nur al-Din in four volumes and named it "Haqaiq al-Furqan". In this commentary, Nur al-Din at first summarizes the verses, then translates and interprets the verses. He uses his own opinions, observations and kashf in the interpretation of Qur'anic verses. (Muhammad Imran, 156, 2016) For example:
Surah Al-Baqarah verse 72 says: " And [recall] when you slew a man and disputed over it, but Allah was to bring out that which you were concealing. According to the interpretation of Noor-ud-din a Jewish woman killed a Muslim woman and the Muslim woman showed her killer before dying, after that the order of her execution was issued. (Noor ud-din, Bita/1, 174)
The second caliph Mirza Bashir al-Din wrote a 10-volume commentary and named it "Tafsir al-Kabir". He also wrote a translation of the Qur'an along with interpretive notes known as "Tafsir al-Sagheer". He has translated the verse 29, Surah Maryam, "So she pointed to him. They said, "How can we speak to one who is in the cradle a child?", as "So she pointed to him. They said, "How can we speak to one who was a child in cradle until yesterday". (Bashir ud-din, 193, 2004/5)
Commentators of Lahori group such as Muhammad Ali and Basharat Ahmad have tried to justified the miracles of the prophets in their interpretations. Muhammad Ali in the interpretation of the miracles of Jesus used the metaphor "Al-Tair" and he believed that Al-Tair referred to those people who had separated themselves from worldly desires. According to him, verse 49 Surah Ali 'Imran delivers the meaning of spiritual healing and not physical illness. Likewise, وَاُحىِ المَوت"" means spiritual resurrection. (Lahori, 14, 1922)
 
 
4-     Conclusion
The most important purpose of Ghulam Ahmad and his followers is to prove Ghulam Ahmad's claims. They have sought and used various ways and methods to achieve this goal. One of the ways is the employment of modern science. Ghulam Ahmad and his followers have used this methodology in interpreting the verses. They have furthered the discussion of scientific interpretation in line with verses concerning to the miracles of the prophets. They somehow tried to justify and interpret the miracles. Sometimes, they used to see the Zahir of Qur'an as metaphorical and other times as Kashf. They even tried to show unusual phenomenon as ordinary events just to prevent the controversies about the claims of Ghulam Ahmad. But there are many proofs in the Qur'an that Allah helps his messengers in various ways, one of which is the power of miracles and unusual phenomenon given to the prophets. There is no reason to transmit these miracles and extraordinary phenomenon esoterically. According to Syed ahmad khan's view, the commentators from Lahori school such as Muhammad Ali and Basharat have gotten influenced in scientific Research methodology.
 
 
 
References
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Quran
  • Interpretation
  • Qadiani Exegetes
  • Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani
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