بازتاب ادب تعلیمی در شعر غنی کشمیری و شاپور تهرانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان(نویسنده مسئول)

3 استاد گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

10.22111/jsr.2020.31609.1994

چکیده

ادبیّات تعلیمی هماهنگ‌ترین نوع ادبی بااخلاق است وبه عنوان یکی ازگسترده‌ترین گونه‌های ادب فارسی،عرصۀ مضمون‌پردازی بزرگترین شُعرا ونویسندگان اخلاق‌گرادر هرعصر وزمانی است. شاعران سبک هندی نیز درترویج فضایل و نهی از رذایل اخلاقی مؤثر بوده‌اند. علاوه بر آن بازشناسی شاعران زبان وادب فارسی در شبه قاره و نیز بازکاوی شعر و اندیشۀ آنان از اهمیت خاص برخوردار است. از این روی این پژوهش با شیوۀ توصیفی– تحلیلی بر آن است تا مضامین ادب تعلیمی را درشعر شاپور تهرانی و غنی کشمیری مورد بررسی و مقایسه قرار دهد.نتایج پژوهش حاکی ازآن است که هردو شاعر از طریق اشعار خود توانسته اند اهمّ مفاهیم تعلیمی مورد نظر خود را به مخاطبان انتقال دهند؛اما شاپور تهرانی درصد فراوانی بیش‌تری را در سه زمینۀ مضامین اخلاقی، عرفانی و فلسفی به خود اختصاص داده است و ظریف‌ترین نکات اخلاقی را مطرح می کند که امروزه می‌توان آنها رابه عنوان معیارهای اساسی توسعۀ اخلاقی در جوامع بشری برشمرد. همچنین هر دو شعر را وسیله‌ای قرار داده‌اند، تا انسان‌ها را به سوی سعادت و بیداری وجدان فرا بخوانند. سوال اصلی تحقیق آن است که غنی کشمیری و شاپور تهرانی تا چه اندازه در آثار خود به بیان آموزه های اخلاقی و تربیتی پرداخته اند؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Reflection on the Teaching of Poetry in Ghani Keshmiri Poetry and Shapour Tehrani

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Boomeri 1
  • abdollah vasegh abbassi 2
  • mohammadamir mashhadi 3
1 PhD student of Persian Language and Literature Dept, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
2 Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, University of Sistan and Baluchestan.
3 Professor of Persian language and literature Dept, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
چکیده [English]

 
1-Introduction
   Literature didactic are writings that aim to teach something to the reader or audience, so the definition of all religious, moral, theological, critical, social, political, scientific writings, teachings and even texts that teach the branch of science, technology or skills They are educational literature.In general, it can be said that every work of art gives a lesson to its reader or audience, and therefore it is a teacher. In expressing the functions of literature, it should be said that the functionalist approach is based on utilitarianism.This means that everything a person does is for the benefit of his life, and literature will last as long as it is useful to the individual or society and meets part of their needs. He paid attention to its various divisions, for example, functions are sometimes obvious and sometimes hidden.Paying attention to the obvious functions, which usually appear as direct functions, should not neglect our attention to the indirect functions of literature. Teaching ethics and culture is one of the functions of literature. To the extent that some have considered it the main function of literature;Of course, its moral function has been more prominent in classical Persian literature, but in the contemporary period, due to changing circumstances, newer expectations and newer opportunities have been provided to educational literature (cf. Razi, 2012: 109)
     The main purpose of this article is to show the role and position of educational literature in the poetry of Ghani Keshmiri and Shapour Tehrani. In his poetry, all Indian poets have more or less dealt with educational themes and have referred to issues such as world instability, falsehood, jealousy, arrogance, and so on. In this study, the educational themes of Shapoor Tehrani's poetry and Ghani Keshmiri's poetry have been studied critically and wisely. The main question of the research is to what extent and how have Ghani Kashmiri and Shapoor Tehrani expressed moral and educational teachings in their works?
 
2-Research methodology
    Research Methodology This research is generally descriptive and analytical. A library tool was used to collect the information.
 
3-Discussion
     In this study the components of educational literature are divided into three categories: educational-mystical, preacher-ethical and philosophical. Ethics is considered to be one of the essential pillars of education. "In the past, man was trained to have moral virtues in him as a temper and queen" (Motahhari, 1364: 13). Therefore, ethics is a set of sensual possessions. That is one of the fruits of education, according to which education is considered to be the result of ethics. "Ethics itself is a kind of upbringing, upbringing brings up the concept of nurturing, it has an absolute meaning, but it is a kind of sanctity embedded in it" (Ibid: 61).
     In Shapoor Tehrani's poetry, the polite doctrine includes: Satisfaction, hypocrisy, avoidance of greed, error avoidance, loneliness, silence and inactivity, call to consciousness, avoidance of sin, avoidance of malice, avoidance. Talking in vain, avoiding harassment.
     In Keshmiri's rich poetry, ethical themes include: contentment, heartbreak, avoidance of hypocrisy, rebellion, temperance, humility, humility, speaking out against the enemy and his deceit, silence. Humiliation, religiosity, trust, avoidance of sin, avoidance of persecution. The result is that both Ghani Keshmiri and Shapoor Tehrani have devised their own ethical themes around commonalities.
     Mystical poetry cannot be studied without considering its doctrinal aspects, and the mixing of these two types is obvious due to their nature and purpose. Teaching-mystical poetry is a large part of our mystical literary heritage, in which the poet's first intention is education with pleasure (Zarqani, 2009: 96).
     In Shapur Tehrani's poetry, mystical themes include: Ehsan, purity of soul and affection, and in Kashmiri's rich poetry, mystical themes include: Ehsan, purity of soul.
     In Shapoor Tehrani's poetry philosophical themes include: Complaining about time, passing life, opportunity deprivation, disbelief and neglect of the world and avoiding neglect and in Keshmir's rich poems philosophical themes include: disbelief in the world, deprivation of opportunity and transience.
 
4-Conclusion
     Studying the rich poetry of Keshmiri and Shapur Tehrani, it became clear that the educational foundations of their poetry have been very effective in promoting virtues and avoiding moral vices, especially that the poets of this period have been able to explain the causes of moral illness through simple poetic and linguistic and expressive methods. To discuss. Set moral aspirations as a beacon for people's lives and learn the ways and customs of social customs. They have never neglected the artistic, linguistic, and literary aspects of poetry to express their moral content; in other words, while paying attention to the artistic aspects of poetry, they have expressed their moral messages and never overshadowed their art in various ways; The artistic and linguistic abilities of their poems are to such an extent that the audience is never overwhelmed by their teachings and practices, and thus have succeeded indirectly in teaching. The language of these two poets is confronted with social corruption, especially hypocrisy, bitterness, and directness. The teaching content of Shapoor Tehrani and Ghani Keshmiri poetry fall into three general categories of philosophical, mystical, and ethical themes; both poets have been able to convey their intended meanings through the use of literary and influential literary techniques and through the use of influential literary techniques. Of course, Shapoor Tehrani has more frequency in the three categories of ethical themes (54%), mystical themes (71%) and philosophical themes (53%) than Ghani Keshmiri. The frequency and frequency of each in the Keshmir rich court are ethical themes (46%), mystical themes (29%) and philosophical themes (47%).
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Didactic Literature
  • Moral and mystical themes
  • Shapour Tehrani
  • Ghani Keshmiri
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