روش‌شناسی ابوریحان بیرونی در کتاب فی‌تحقیق ماللهند و آثارالباقیه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه تاریخ دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

10.22111/jsr.2019.28143.1880

چکیده

       ابوریحان‌بیرونی یکی از نامدارترین دانشمندان سده چهارم هجری است. مهم‌ترین دلیل معروفیت او به کارگیری روش‌شناسی و داشتن بینشی ژرف در کالبدشکافی علوم بود. مقاله حاضر درصدد است تا به این سوال پاسخ دهد که وجوه افتراق و اشتراک اندیشه‌های ابوریحان در تعریف و تفسیر علم در دو کتاب آثارالباقیه و فی تحقیق ماللهند چیست؟ دستاوردها نشان می‌دهد اگرچه رویکرد ابوریحان در پاره ای از علوم نظیر طبیعیات، ریاضی و علوم‌تجربی مبنی بر مشاهده، استقراء و شیوه عقلی بوده؛ در کتاب فی تحقیق ماللهند و آثارالباقیه نگرشی محتاطانه همراه با اندکی تعصب داشته است. بیرونی در این اثر بیش از روش عقلی از روش همدلانه که امروزه یکی از روش‌های موثر در رشته علوم انسانی است،بهره جست. پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی در تلاش است تا به ظرافت‌های درک درونی و فهم تاریخی دو کتاب فی تحقیق ماللهند و آثارالباقیه بپردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Aboureihan Bourouni's Methodology on the Study of Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend (Research on India), Jamahir, and Asarol Baghieh (Remaining Works)

نویسنده [English]

  • fatemeh rostami
Assistant Professor of the History Dept, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
چکیده [English]

 
1.  Introduction
Abu Rayhan Biruni is known to be a distinguished scientist and also a philosopher; the reason is that his practical style was based on meticulous observation, and rational reasoning. While in rhetorical thought any kind of reasoning, analysis, and judgment in science were forbidden, and the thinkers only quoted (ideas) from different sciences, Biruni opposed this current trend of only quoting and in his well-known works such as Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend (Research on India), Jamahir, and Asarol Baghieh (Remaining Works), writes about methodology, and choice of better opinions from among all of them, and brings reasons that this method is unique and unprecedented. There exist signs and reasons proving that Biruni's view point and methodology in two of his books namely in Asarol Baghieh, and Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend, are unique to that day.The current research attempts to answer the question: what similarities/differences exist between Biruni's thoughts and his definition and interpretation of science in the two books Asarol Baghieh, and in Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend, and in the rest of his books? What connection exists between Biruni's scientific and political stance with the books  Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend, and Asarol Baghieh? The assumptions of the research are that to know India's history and to introduce it better, Biruni adopts the method of identification with the Indian people. The research proves that the method had been used in Biruni's previous works too. Since Biruni had been familiar with Greek philosophical schools and its rational method of reasoning, his books possess cohesion and are systematic.
2. Research  Methodology
The current research methodology is based on explication-analysis and attempts to discover the details and historical significances of the two books Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend, and Asarol Baghieh. Details and witnesses show that though Biruni's approach in Natural Sciences, Mathematics, and Experimental Sciences, is based on observation, induction, and reasoning, in Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend, and Asarol Baghieh his approach is somewhat cautious and rather prejudiced. In these works Biruni uses the method of identification which is currently very influential in humanities.
3. Discussion
 The main aim of the current research is study of methodology of the two books Asarol Baghieh, and Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend. The topic of Asarol Baghieh is comparative study of calendars of different cultures and civilizations, in connection with mathematics, astrology, history, and religions. Writing of Asarol Baghieh was finished in 1012 A.D. and is among his first works that was published by the court of Ghabous in Gorgan while he was at the age of twenty. He explains the science of genealogy as: I named these family trees to highlight how people treat each other with prejudice whether in love towards those whom they like or hatred towards those whom they hate, thus their judgments become affected by their prejudice." (Biruni, 1984, 64). The similarity between the two books lies in their methodology which is exact observation and experiment. This feature is very visible and documented in his works. On the other side there are inhomogeneous phrases and sentences which are not harmonious with the total rational methodology of the work. First, in some parts of the two books there exist the words our enemies; in the section about the definition of the foghaha or clergy is written: "If foghaha (clergy) claim religious daytime is different from what common people regard as daytime, this difference is merely a difference of words which is unfamiliar to them, in the Qoran verse there is no hint of beginning or end of day; after our enemies accept our meaning of the term, in case there be any difference, we ignore the difference" (Biruni, 1944:7). About meridian is written: If our enemies do not know such issues, or if they pretend foolishness, it is inevitable for them to accept that the first meridian is six hours and the other meridian is also six hours, thus they cannot refuse this point." (ibid,9). This approach is very dominant in Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend, but the difference lies in the fact that his approach or view towards "I", "the other", "we", and "they" is very much understandable. Biruni accompanied Soltan Mahmoud Ghaznavi to India and after Mahmoud's attack to India, Biruni compiled all his observations and studies of India in Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend. In the book Biruni names the Indians as "they", or "them"and names Muslims as "we", or "us"; however this point is not considered as Biruni's inferior view towards the Indians, as Edward Saeed believes to be so. (Saeed, 2004:24). Nevertheless, while describing Indians, Biruni's view towards them is sympathetic and realistic.(Nasaj, 2013:79). In the second chapter of the book, Indians' view of God is studied, and this includes both the higher casts' view and the common people view: " After studying the higher casts' view of God, we study the common people's views of God which are very different and they stick firmly to their views" (Biruni, 1958:32). This view is currently noticed in ethnology.
4. Conclusion
Abu Rayhan Biruni is among the well-known figures of science, culture, and civilization in the 10th century A.D. The distinguishing feature in his studies is his rational approach towards science and history and not becoming entrapped in prejudice. Thus, his methodology and specific approach of analysis of scientific data is tangibly visible; he himself mentions this approach in different parts of his works. Though Biruni's methodology is based on scientific observation, data gathering, and induction, there are signs that show in the two books,  Asarol Baghieh, and Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend, and in his studies of history, and rhetoric, he tries to keep balance and even sometimes gets prejudiced in answering those whom he calls enemies. In announcing news, he merely quotes them and sometimes he prefers to explain events through recourse to divinity and Holy Qoran verses, nevertheless, in Natural Sciences, especially in astrology and mathematics, his approach and reasoning is totally rational. Biruni's approach in Fi Tahghigh Malel Hend is sympathetic and based on identification. The approach which is nowadays applied in hermeneutics, by Dilthey followers,  and by Max Weber, was previously first used by Biruni. Biruni's methodology of distinguishing  "our selves" and "others" and applying it in study of the history of Indians and other non- muslim nations helped him to clarify his studies and findings. The approach was later on applied by other chroniclers. 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • bironi
  • Ayar al-Baqiyah
  • Phythoghayegh Malahand
  • Methodology
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