رویکردهای عرفانی فیضی فیاضی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه کاشان

2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه کاشان

3 دکترای زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه کاشان

10.22111/jsr.2020.26110.1810

چکیده

شیخ ابوالفیض بن مبارک(954ـ 1004ه.) متخلّص به فیضی از بزرگ­ترین شاعران قرن دهم هجری و ملک‌الشعرای دربار اکبرشاه بوده­است. بر خلاف دیدگاه کسانی که او را ملحد و دیوانش را سرشار از کفریات دانسته­اند، او در بارۀ دین نگاهی ژرف و با آموزه­های عرفانی آشنایی بسیار داشته­است و در عین حال از تنگ‌نظری و تعصب به دور بوده و دیوان او گنجینه‌ای عرفانی است. در این مقاله بر بنیاد این فرضیه‌ها و با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی کوشیده‌­شده­است که اندیشه­های عرفانی و اثرپذیری از مکاتب گوناگون عرفانی در دیوان فیضی واکاوی شود و به این نتایج رسیده‌ایم که فیضی به مکاتب عرفانی ملامتی و قلندری گرایش بیشتری داشته، همان‌گونه که با تصوف خانقاهی سر سازش نداشته و فراوان از مظاهر آن چون خانقاه و خرقه و شیخ و ... انتقاد کرده است. شیوة بیانش در تبیین مبارزه با نفس بیشتر حماسی و تأویل­گرایانه  بوده و در اندیشه­های ملامتی و قلندری رندانه و طنزآمیز و در شطحیات اغراق­آمیز و متناقض. حوادث اجتماعی و فرهنگی عصر او نیز در دیدگاه‌های او  اثرها داشته، به ویژه در نگاه اشراقی او و ستایش‌های بسیارش از خورشید و تساهل با پیروان دیگر ادیان و مکاتب.   

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Research on the Mystical Approaches of Faizi Fayazi

نویسندگان [English]

  • siyyedali rohani 1
  • seyyed mohammad rastu 2
  • alireza fuladiq 2
  • reza shajari 2
  • mohammadmostafa resalatpanahi 3
1 Ph.D. student of Persian language and literature of Kashan University
2 Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, of kashan University
3 Ph.D degree of Persian Language and Literature Dept of kashan university
چکیده [English]

 
 
 
1-     Introduction
Sheikh Abolfaiz ibn-e- Mubarak (954 -1004 A.D.) whose pen name is Faizi was one of the greatest poets of the tenth century A.H. and the poet laureate of the court of the Akbar. Some have called him an atheist and his book full of blasphemy but he had a deep look about religion and was fully aware of mystical teachings and hated bigotry and his Divan is a treasure of mystical issues. There was no research on the mystical approaches of Faizi so his poetry needed to be studied to reveal the influence of mystical schools on his poetry and his artistic style. In this study, we have shown which mystical ideas are most reflected in his Divan and how was his approach to mystical thoughts and what effect did social and political developments have on his mystical thoughts.
2-     Research methodology
This study has been carried out in the descriptive-analytical and content analysis methods. In this method the messages of all the verses of Faizi’s Divan have been examined and the verses with mystical themes have been written on the sheets and at the same time, we have taken notes of relevant library resources and by describing, analyzing, and classifying the notes, we have come to new conclusions about Faizi's mystical approaches.
3-     Discussion
The mystical epic is a literary type in which the mystical concepts are discussed in an epic way. In the mystical epic, the mystic is a hero and the sensuality is a demon and the seven stages of love are like Haft Khan-e- Rostam. (Shamisa, 1991: 131-133) Faizi has interpreted mystical concepts by mixing allusion and other figures of speech as well as using glorious and epic language and has blended the elegance of mysticism and epic glory. He has likened himself to Rostam and the sensuality to demon and seven stages of love to Haft Khan-e Rostam. (Faizi, 1983: 10)
Thoughts of "Malamatya", such as hatred of the cloak (Khargushi, 1999: 40) and avoiding knowledge and writing (Shafieiye Kadkani, 2007: 342) is reflected in his Divan. He has believed that focusing on books and compilations and appearance sciences prevented him from coming to the truth (Faizi, 1983: 126) and appearance books must be burned in the fire of love. (same: 335)
Qalandari poetry is a poem that attacks social, religious and moral values and tries to propagate the anti-values. (Shafieiye Kadkani, 2007: 297) Faizi has also criticized many appearances of religion and has despised all virtual manifestations of religion. He has wished to melt the Kaaba chain and make an idol with it and install the strings of the Kaaba on his harp and play music in the mosque and destroy the Kaaba and attack the pilgrims and slaughter their camels and … because in his opinion all this is unrealistic. (Faizi, 1983: 468) With his artistic style he has shown the hypocritical contradictions of the sheikhs and the hermits and the preachers and ridicule them. To him, all religions are the same. "I follow a thousand religions," he has said. (same: 198)
"Shath" is an ecstatic and weird utterance which this is accompanied by the intensity of the excitement. (Abū Naṣr Sarrāj, 1914: 322) "Shath" usually has a contradiction and is a sign of unity with God and is accompanied by seemingly exaggerated claims. "Shath" is widely reflected in the Faizi’s poem. He has identified himself as God that has leaned on his Throne and the sky is a drop of his greatness and the universe is watching his glory. (Faizi, 1983: 28)
One of the notable concepts in Faizi's poems is the praise and bow of the Sun, its light and its manifestations. The cause of this special praise, in addition to being influenced by the mystical tradition of the past, was the existence of "Din-e Ilahi" that “Akbar” has invented it and has sought to forge a unity between different religions and schools. In "Din-e Ilahi" or "Whole Peace" under the influence of “Hinduism”, “Zoroastrianism” and “Illuminationism” the Sun and its manifestations were bow.
4-     Conclusion
This research, which examined the Faizi's Divan from a mystical point of view, found that: 1- Faizi was a very prominent poet, with deep thought, powerful imagination, strong language and extensive knowledge, who fully understood and reflected mystical subjects in his poetry and has flourished his poems. 2- Among the schools and mystical currents, he was more interested in Malamatiyya and Qalandariya and this tendency is reflected in his poetry and has made his poetry "Rendane" as he has hated the shallow hermits and the hypocritical Sufis and this hatred has made his poetry full of humor, irony, and ridicule for Sufi, ascetic, Sheikh, preacher and other religious and cultural taboos. 3- His mystical tendencies have influenced his language, expression and vocabulary and have directed his poetry and thus, methods such as humor, irony, breaking the norm, exaggeration, contradiction, epic tone and mystical interpretation have a high frequency in his poetry also subjects such as love, praise of wine and madness, blaming Wisdom and asceticism. 4- The intellectual and religious currents of the poet's day, especially "Din-e Ilahi", which sought treatment for religious differences, had a profound effect on his ideas, especially in the fields of pluralism, religious tolerance, Hatred of bigotry, inclination to the light, praise of the Sun and its manifestations.
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Persian poetry
  • Mysticism
  • Faizi
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