بر همکنش‌های اقتصادی- سیاسی جوامع جنوب ‌شرقی فلات ایران با شبه‌‌قارۀ هند و میان‌رودان( در طی هزارۀ سوم ق.م؛ مطالعۀ موردی، تجارت سنگ‌های قیمتی)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه باستانشناسی دانشکدۀ هنر دانشگاه بیرجند(نویسندۀ مسئول)

2 استادیار گروه باستانشناسی دانشکدۀ هنر دانشگاه بیرجند

3 کارشناس ارشد باستانشناسی دانشگاه شهرکرد

10.22111/jsr.2020.28288.1885

چکیده

تحلیل روابط درون و برون منطقه­ای هزارۀ سوم در جنوب‌شرقی فلات ایران با شبه­قارۀ هند و میان­رودان براساس سنگ­های ­ارزشمند و قیمتی، مساله اصلی پژوهش حاضر است. یکی از مهم‌ترین راه­های درک روابط و بر همکنش­های اقتصادی- سیاسی جوامع اواخر پیش از تاریخ و آغاز تاریخی، مقایسه و مطالعه‌ فرهنگ مادی است. با توجه به اینکه هزارۀ سوم ق.م در فلات ایران، دورۀ گستردگی بر همکنش­ها محسوب می­گردد، بسط و توسعۀ مبادلات اقتصادی- سیاسی در پیشرفت جوامع بسیار تأثیرگذار بوده است. در این‌خصوص محوطه­های باستان­شناختی شاخص در جنوب‌شرقی ایران شایان توجه هستند. محوطه­های جنوب‌شرقی فلات ایران در روند تجارت، نقش واسطه صرف را بازی نمی­کرده­اند، بلکه بعد از وارد کردن مواد خام، با ساخت و پرداخت مواد تجاری و تبدیل آن به کالاهای آماده یا نیمه­آماده آن را به سایر نقاط صادر می­کرده­اند. روش پژوهش حاضر براساس اطلاعات حاصل از کاوش­ها و پژوهش­های باستان­شناسی حوزۀ مورد مطالعه و بهره­گیری از منابع کتابخانه­ای است. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می­دهد که چگونه توسعۀ روابط تجاری و به­ویژه تجارت فرامنطقه­ای به‌عنوان عاملی مهم در گسترش و توسعۀ استقرارهای هزارۀ سوم عمل نموده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Economic-Political Interactions of the Southeastern Societies in the Iranian Plateau with the Indian Subcontinent and Mesopotamia during the Third Millennium B.C.: A Case of Precious Stones Trade

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Reza Ghorbani 1
  • Hossein Koohestani 2
  • Kavoos Khosravi 3
1 Assistant Professor of Archaeology Dept, University of Birjand.
2 Assistant Professor of Archaeology, Department of Archaeology, University of Birjand.
3 Master of Archaeology Dept, University of Shahrekord.
چکیده [English]

 
2- Introduction
The issue of economic interactions is one of the components of the reconstruction of the social history of human societies based on real evidence that has received attention since the middle of the twentieth century in research about changes in ancient social organizations. From the middle of the twentieth century onwards, efforts have been made to explain the cultural changes of the societies in the past in relation to their environmental resources from a processed-based evolutionary perspective )Steward, 1942: 337- 43(. These topics continued to expand and improve in the form of research about economic and social dynamics and social and economic relations of ancient societies) Polanyi, 1963: 30-45(. Influenced by new archaeological approaches, issues such as organization and scale of production and distribution, and cultural interactions were introduced to investigate the social and economic history of ancient societies )Costin, 1991: 1-55). In the course of cultural interactions between different regions in Southwest Asia, trade networks, mechanisms for the exchange of raw materials and handicrafts, and trans-regional relations emerged. Accordingly, people could travel between societies and exchange ideas. Additionally, political principles and central institutions were formed and the economic-social dynamics came about (Brumfiel and Earle, 1971: 1-9). Furthermore, the Iranian Plateau has also played an important role in the developments in the 3rd and 4th millennia B.C. in Southwest Asia (Tosi, Malek Shahmirzadi & Joyenda, 1992: 310-261).
The cultural relations between Iran and its neighbors, including Mesopotamia and the Indian subcontinent, have existed for thousands of years. Relations between these regions have long been considered by researchers from different disciplines such as archeology, economics, history, politics, and culture and art (Majidzadeh, 1989: 150-152). The proximity of these civilizations encouraged many interactions. One of the most important fields that investigate these interactions is archeology, which can help reconstruct cultural and economic interactions and relations between the human settlements in the Iranian Plateau and the neighboring regions, by using various research instruments and patterns and by studying discovered cultural artifacts (Seyyed Sejjadi, 2001: 131-140). Most of these regions were known as one geographic region in the past. By looking at their past, we find that the third millennium B.C. was one of their most important periods. Among the most significant regions that had direct relations with their neighboring civilizations is Southeast Iran, with urban civilizations such as Shahr-e Sukhteh (the Burned City), Bampur, Yahya and Jiroft, which have been studied. Accordingly, the following questions can be raised:
1. What has been the role of precious stones trade in the development of settlements in the southeastern part of the Iranian Plateau during the third millennium?
2. How was precious stones trade done and how did it find its way to neighboring territories, especially Mesopotamia and the Indian subcontinent?
The purpose of this study was to study part of this enormous economic system and the relations through trade between the settlements in southeastern Iran and the neighboring tribes, especially in Mesopotamia and the Indian subcontinent civilizations (i.e. Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, and Baluchestan in Pakistan) during the third millennium B.C. This can be an important step in understanding the regional production system and commercial-cultural exchanges in the Iranian Plateau, given the special features of this region with its easily accessible enormous mines.
 
3- Research methodology
The present research is based on information obtained from archaeological explorations and studies on the subject of the study as well as library resources. The research data were collected using the descriptive-comparative study methodology, where similar and contemporaneous data were compared and analyzed to form a conclusion.
 
 
 
4- Discussion
One of the most important factors that account for the growth and development of human civilizations has been the commercial relations between different peoples. These complex and dynamic relations, which comprise part of the productive activities of a community, are a vital part of any social and economic structure. Of the major trade items were precious stones (turquoise, soapstone and lazuli) that were widely used in the ancient world, especially in the third millennium B.C. (Jarrige and Meadow, 1980: 101). The greater bulk of the discovered stones are from different sites in Mesopotamia, Iran, and the sub-continent of India, which are all come from the eastern parts of Iran. For example, soapstone that was discovered in Mesopotamia, comes from Yahya Hill and Shahdad Hill in southeastern Iran. Another precious and important stone type is the lapis lazuli (Figure 1), which played a major role in the third millennium trades. Coming from Badakhshan mines (Maps 1 and 2), lapis lazuli stones have been discovered as finished and unfinished artifacts in Shahr-e Sukhteh (the Burned City), Shahdad and Mesopotamia.
 
5- Conclusion
As previously mentioned, the history of Iran's cultural relations with its neighbors, including Mesopotamia, India and Pakistan, goes back to prehistoric millennia. In the third millennium B.C., factors such as natural resources, natural evolution and population growth led to the emergence of urban communities in southeastern Iran, which led to creation of regional and trans-regional trade networks in order to meet their needs. Based on a typological comparison of cultural artifacts, it was revealed that the eastern regions in the Iranian Plateau had extensive relations with their neighboring regions in Mesopotamia, India (the Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro civilizations) and Pakistan (Baluchestan). It should be noted that relations between cultures, especially in the Bronze Age, is a complex topic, particularly when our research is limited to cultural artifacts such as pottery and mineral materials. To compensate for it, other cultural finds which have been obtained through archaeological explorations should be incorporated into the comparative view. The study describes the factors that contributed to formation of relations during the third millennium B.C., including most notably, the geographical proximity of the regions to each other and the need for goods, particularly minerals and raw materials. This led to the expansion of trade and cultural-artistic, economic, and even socio-political relations. As an example, the need for Badakhshan lapis lazuli stone was one of the most important reasons for developing relations in those communities.
 
6- References

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Rao, S. R, Lothal and the Indus Civilization. London, Asia Publishing. 1937.
Polanyi, K, Ports of trades in early society. Journal of Economic History. Vol: 23. No: 1. Pp: 30-45. 1963.
Pittman, Holly, Art of the Bronze Age of Southeastern Iran, Western Central Asia and The Indus Valley, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984.
Shirazi, Roohallah and Mehdi Dehmordeh Pahlavan, Cultural Interactions Between Kerman, Makran and Hirmand Field Based on Clay Data In Bronze Age. Journal of Iranian Archaeology Research, Vol: 7. No: 15. 2017.
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • 3rd Millennium B.C
  • Economic-political interaction
  • Southeast of Iran
  • Indian subcontinent
  • Mesopotamia
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21. Costin, C. L, Craft specialization: issues in defining, documenting and explaining the organization of production. Archaeological Method and Theory, University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Pp: 1-55. 1991.
22. Cortesi, E., Tosi, M., Lazzari, A and Vidale, A. Cultural Relationship beyond the Iranian Plateau: The Helmand Civilization Baluchistan and the Indus Valley in the 3rd Millenium BCE. Paleorient Vol: 34. No: 2. pp. 5-35. 2008.
23.Daneshvar Mohammad, From Qaleh Dokhtar to Daghyanoos, Kermanshenasi Publication, second edition. 2004.
24. De Cardi, Beatrice, The Bampur sequence in the 3rd Millennium B. C. Antiquity. Vol: 41. No: 161. Pp: 33-41. 1967.
25._________, Beatrice, Excavations at Bampur, S. E. Iran: A Brief Report. Iran. Vol: 6. Pp: 135-155. 1968.
26._________, Beatrice, Excavations at Bampur, a Third Millennium Settlement in Persian Baluchistan 1966. Anthropology Papers of the American Museum of natural History. Vol: 51. Part: 3. 1970.
27.Dahmardeh, Mehdi., Shirazi, Rouhillah and Basafa, Hassan, Specialization, Economic Complexities and Commercial Transactions of Northeastern Iran based on the data of Gharashshmeh Neishabur, Journal of Subcontinent Research, Vol: 11. No: 36. Pp: 77-102. 2019.
28. Dales, G. F, Harappan Outposts on the Makran Coast, in Antiquity XXXVI, PP. 86-92. 1962.
29 .Dani and V. M. Mason, Vol: 1, pp. 184-216. UNESCO, 1992.
30. Fairservis, Walter. Ashlin, Excavations in the Quetta Valley, West Pakistan. Anthropological paper of the American Museum of natural History Vol. 45. Part: 2. 1956.
31. Fogolini, Larea di Lavorazine del lapislazzuli nei quadrati EWK-EWP: Perle orientali. Museo Nazionale Darte orientale: Roma. Pp. 71-76. 1998.
32. Hakemi, Ali, Archaeological Studies of Loot Plain margin. Iran's archaeology and art 2. 1968.
33. Jarrige, J, F., and Meadow, R. The Antecedents of Civilization in the Indus Valley. Scientific American, Vol: 243. No: 2. Pp: 122-133. 1980.
34. Kohl, P. and Pottier M.-H. Central Asia materials from Baluchistan and south eastern Iran at the end of the third millennium B. C. Persica, vol. XXIV, pp. 91-103. 1990-1992.
35. Kosambi, D. D. The first cities, in The Culture and Civilization of Ancient India in Historical Outline. New Delhi. 1987.
36. Kaboli, Mir Abedin, Is Shahdad the capital of Aratta province?. Archaeology and history, Vol:1, No: 1. 1986.
37. Lamberg- Karlovsky C. C., & Kohl, P. C. The Early Bronze Age as seen as from Tepe Yahya. Expedition. Vol: 13. No: 34. Pp: 14- 21. 1971.
38. Lamberg- Karlovsky, C. C. and M. Tosi. Shahr-I Sokhta and Tepe Yahya: Tracks on the Earliest History of the Iranian plateau. East and West. Vol: 23. Pp: 21-58. 1973.
39. Lamberg- Karlovsky, C. C. and A. Jeremy A. Sabloff, Ancient Civilization. The Near East and Mesoamerica, WAVELAND PRESS, INC. 1995
40. Majidzadeh, Y, The land of Aratta. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Vol: 35. No: 2. Pp: 105-113. 1976.
41. ___________, Beginning of Urbanization in Iran. University press center. Tehran. 1989.
42. Miroschedji, P. de, Vases et objects en steatite susiene. Cahier de la Delegation Archaeologique Francaise en Iran. Vol: 3. Pp: 9-80. 1973.
43. Mortazavi, Mehdi and Fariba Mosapour Negari. At the Crossroads of the Persian Gulf and Indus Valley: A Systematic Survey at Tepe Bampur. Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology. 2008.
44. Mortazavi, Mehdi. The Bampur Valley: A New Chronological Development. Ancient Asia. vol. 1. Pp: 53-64.2006.
45. Rao, S. R, Lothal and the Indus Civilization. London, Asia Publishing. 1937.
46. Polanyi, K, Ports of trades in early society. Journal of Economic History. Vol: 23. No: 1. Pp: 30-45. 1963.
47. Pittman, Holly, Art of the Bronze Age of Southeastern Iran, Western Central Asia and The Indus Valley, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984.
48.Shirazi, Roohallah and Mehdi Dehmordeh Pahlavan, Cultural Interactions Between Kerman, Makran and Hirmand Field Based on Clay Data In Bronze Age. Journal of Iranian Archaeology Research, Vol: 7. No: 15. 2017.
49. Seyed Sajadi, Seyed Mansour, Baluchistan Ancient Evidence sincePrehistoric until Islam, Iranian Journal of archaeology and history. 1988.
50. ________________________, 1996, Archaeology and History of Baluchestan. Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicraft and Tourism Organization Press. Tehran. 1996
51. ________________________, Proto-Elamite Clay Tablet, human sciences, seventh year, serial No.15. Pp: 131-148. 2001.
52. _________________________, 2007, Jewelry and Beading in Shahr-I Sokhte, Zabol. 2007.
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