لشکرکشی مسلمانان به هند که از سال 15 هجری در زمان خلافت عمر آغاز شده بود، در مراحل بعدی و دوره فرمانروایان اموی ادامه یافت. سؤال این است که چرا رویکرد نظامی برای گسترش اسلام در هند نتایج موفقیتآمیز و ماندگار نداشت؟ این پژوهش با روش تاریخی و شیوه توصیفی ـ تحلیلی و استفاده از منابع کتابخانهای به این موضوع پرداخته است. ظاهراً، بحث گسترش اسلام در آن سرزمین مطرح بوده است؛ اما هدف و نحوة عمل مهاجمان بر اساس اصول اسلام صورت نگرفته است. براساس قرآن کریم جهاد فقط در مقابل جنگ و تجاوزگری مجاز دانسته شده است و نباید مردم را با کشتار و اجبار مسلمان کرد. از طرفی اهدافی مانند تسلط بر راهها و مراکز تجاری هند، اموال، خزاین و ... مورد نظر بوده و این مطلب در سخنان و فرمانهای زمامداران مسلمان آشکار است. همچنین بیرحمی، رفتارهای ناجوانمردانه و کشتار فراوان ازجمله در دیبل، نه تنها کمکی به گسترش اسلام نکرد بلکه موجب نفرت ساکنان آن سرزمین از مسلمانان شد؛ چنانکه مردم مناطق فتحشده، در دوره حاکمان بعد از محمد بن قاسم شورش کردند و مناطق خود را بازپس گرفتند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The role of war and military approach of Muslims in the expansion of Islam in India until the end of the Umayyad
In the first century AH, Muslims had two approaches to expansion of Islam in India. One is Cultural-propaganda approach that has been associated with interaction, discussion and communication to preach Islam and the other approach is militarism, attack and invasion. This study critiques and analyzes the second approach. At first, the Muslim expedition to India was briefly mentioned until the end of the Umayyad period. And then, it examines how Muslims treat the target community and evaluates their actions based on the principles of Islam by exemplification of Muslim actions.
This study aims to elucidate the outcomes of the military approach in the expansion of Islam in India; and if the desired result was not achieved, what lies behind thereof? The point to consider is that Jihad is one of the commands and teachings of the Holy Qur’an to Muslims to confront the unbelievers and pagans.
Jihad has certain rules and determined circumstances (Women, 90-91; Shaltout, 1991, 52; Nasiri, 2017, 128), and then, in order to be effective in advancing Islam, those circumstances must be carefully considered and acted upon. (Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon 150, Rouhani, 1999, vol. 1, 117-118)
In this article, the author has tried to examine the record and performance of Muslim rulers in the invasion to India. And then, the way of the Prophet (PBUH) and Islam principles regarding Jihad have been evaluated by matching this campaign with the orders of the Holy Qur’an to ratiocinate the failure of the military approach in the spreading Islam in India.
The Muslim expedition to India commenced in 15 AH. Muslim rulers have been paying attention to this land ever since. (Blazeri, 1988, vol. 2, 602-614; Yaghoubi, 1992, vol. 2, 243-245) The purpose of this campaign was apparently to spread Islam there, but they really intended to spread Islam? Has the principles of Islam been followed to achieve the goal?
This research seeks to answer the following questions:
Which one of the Muslim rulers invaded India?
How did the attackers treat the Indian people?
Why did it not have successful and lasting results for spreading Islam in India?
This article has been compiled in a descriptive-analytical method. First, the Muslim expeditions to India are briefly described and then analyzed. Data collection was done using library resources and by studying historical sources, conquest and research and studies, and the required information have been extracted. This information has been criticized and analyzed by referring to the Holy Qur’an and the biography of the Prophet of Islam (PBUH).
The Muslims started invading India during the caliphate of Umar, but the simultaneous campaigns were not so successful until the reign of Walid bin Abdul Malik, the Umayyad caliph (Blazeri, 1958, vol. 2: 602-607). During the reign of Walid ibn Abdul Malik (86-96 AH), Hajjaj ibn Yusuf who was the ruler of Iraq, sent Muhammad ibn Qasim to India as an army commander. The Muslims conquered many cities up to the Kashmir border. (Ibn Athir, 2005, vol. 6: 2763-2765; Kufi, 2005: 241-242). Their purpose was apparently spreading Islam in India; but the real intention of the invaders was not based on Islamic teachings and the criteria of Jihad. The Holy Qur'an has ordered Jihad if the polytheists insist on inciting war, and has ordered Jihad to prevent oppression and defend the oppressed (Hajj, 39-40), and to administer justice (Women, 91, 75 and 29; Examiner, 8). The behavior of the Prophet (PBUH) has been based on these principles (Ibn Hisham, 2013, vol. 2, 188 and 205-207; Yaqubi, 2003, vol 1: 403). However, the Umayyad rulers pursued their own economic ambitions, and what they alleged reflected this fact. After conquering Sindh, Hajjaj expressed their joy at conquering India and gaining a lot of wealth there (Kofi, 2005: 91). After the conquest of Raur, "Hajjaj prostrated... and [said] I became the owner of all treasures and properties" (Kufi, 2005: 196-195). Muhammad ibn Qasim, in front of the Indian army, said to his own army: “We will seize their properties and their wives, and we will take a lot of booty” (Kufi, 2005: 175). Umayyad army massacred people for three days in Deybol; Then, they built a mosque there (Blazeri, 1958: 610; Ibn Athir, 2005, vol. 6: 2763). Hajjaj in a letter to Muhammad Qasim emphased to seize the treasures of Eror and Multan, and occupy India up to China; He writes: “... Kill anyone who disobeys Islam” (Kufi, 2005: 216-217). Junaid ibn Abd al-Rahman breach his promise and killed Jeyssieh, son of Daher, king of Sindh, who became a Muslim during the reign of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz and he also deciet his brother and killed him. Thus, the misconduct of the Umayyad agents in India not only did not promote Islam there, but also led to a popular uprising against them and their expulsion from the occupied lands (Blazeri, 1958: 617-618; Ibn Athir, 2005, vol. 6: 2820-2821).
The Muslim expedition to India started in 15 AH during the caliphate of Umar ,and It continued in the period of the next caliphs and well-known Umayyad rulers such as Mu'awiyah, Walid bin Abdul Malik, Hajjaj bin Yusuf, Muhammad bin Qasim, Junaid bin Abdul Rahman and others. These campaigns were not successful because they were not in accordance with the tenets of Islam, and in many cases, the Qur'anic teachings and the thews of the Prophet (PBUH) about war and Jihad have been violated. In addition, secular motives and materialistic intentions have prevented them from promoting Islamic teachings and virtues. According to the Holy Qur'an, war and Jihad are legitimate when the unbelievers commit criminal actions and continue to commit aggression and war, in a way that endangers the dignity and security of Muslims; In this case, Jihad is ordered as a defensive action. In the Holy Qur'an, we do not find a single verse that commands to kill in order to make people believe in Islam.
The main motives of the Umayyad invaders to India were domination of ports and commercial centers, including the city of Dibol and domination of the Indian Ocean coast, and Asian trade routes, property, treasures, estates, and generally economical necessities. This fact is well reflected in the words and commands of the Muslim rulers in deciding and planning to invade that land. Although the Islamic governments had several campaigns to conquer India, but their actions were not based on true Islam, so that they did not have the desirable and permanent results. The military attack was effective only on removing political and military impediments and facilitating the emigration of Muslim missionaries; but the brutality and killing people in Indian cities, including Dibol and Brahmanabad, made people hate Muslims. As the people of the conquered areas revolted after Muhammad ibn Qasim and during the reign of rulers such as Junaid ibn Abd al-Rahman, Tamim ibn Zayd Atabi and Hakam ibn Awana Kalbi; and drove the Muslims out of the cities of India in such a way that the Muslim rulers had to build new cities and live in them in order to save their lives.
The Holy Quran
Abu Fars, Mohammad Abdul Qadir, The Military School of the Great Prophet (PBUH), translated by Alireza Farazi, Qom: Zamzam Hedayat Publication, 2015
Al-Hasani, Abd al-Hayy bin Fakhr al-Din, Stroll the thoughts and the joy of listeners and viewers, al-Dakan: Al-Othmaniyah Encyclopedia, 1962
Alikhani, Ali Akbar et al., Prophetic Politics; Fundamentals, Principles, Strategies, Tehran: Research Institute for Cultural and Social Studies, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, 2007
Al-Waqidi, Muhammad ibn Umar Waqid, Invasions, by Marsden Jones, vol. 1, Beirut: Scientific Institute, 1988
Blazeri, Ahmad Ibn Yahya, The Conquest of the Countries, translated by Mohammad Tavakol, Tehran, Silver Publication, 1958, Electronic Publishing by the History of Iran website by Amir Hossein Khanji.
Chelongar, Mohammad Ali and Abbasi, Ali Akbar, Analytical History of the Early Islam, Tehran: Phoenix Millennium Publication, 2012
Delshad Tehrani, Mostafa, Biography of Prophet (Practical Logic), Tehran: Publishing Organization of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, 1993
Ershad, Farhang, Historical Migration of Iranians to India, Tehran: Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 2000
Frye R.N. (gatherer), Cambridge History of Iran, translated by Hassan Anousheh, Tehran: Amirkabir Publications, 1984
Ghaneh Tatavi, Mir Ali Shir, Honorable masterpiece, Efforted by Seyyed Hesamuddin Rashedi, Hyderabad, 1959
Ibn Athir, Izz al-Din Ali ibn Muhammad, The Complete History, translated by Seyyed Mohammad Hussein Rouhani, vol. 6, Tehran: Asatir Publication, 2005
Ibn Hisham, Abdul Malik, Biography of Muhammad Rasoolullah from Migration until the Ditch, translated by Massoud Ansari, vol. 2, Tehran: Molla Publication, 2013
Ibn Hisham, Abdul Malik, The biography of Muhammad Rasoolullah from the Ditch until Death, translated by Massoud Ansari, vol. 3, Tehran: Molla Publication, 2013
Kofi, Ali Ibn Hamed, The Conquest of Sindh known as Chechnameh, edited by Davood Poteh, Tehran: Asatir Publications, 2005
Lal, K.S, Early Muslims in India, New Delhi, 1984
Lari, Suhail Zaheer, A History of Sindh, Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1994, available at https://www.noormags.ir (last access on 26 Oct 2017)
Nadvi, Seyed Suleyman, “Religious Relations of India with Arabia”, Vol VIII, Islamic Culture, April 1934. Available at https://www.noormags.ir (last access on 26 Oct 2017)
Nadvi, Seyed Suleyman, “Religious Relations of India with Arabia”, Vol VIII, Islamic Culture, Junuary 1934.Available at https://www.noormags.ir (last access on 26 Oct 2017)
Nasiri, Mohammad, Analytical History of the Early Islam, Qom: Maaref Publishing, 2017
Nazari, Mehdi, "Tolerance of the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) with opponents and its impact on Islamic civilization", Collection of selected scientific-research articles of the 8th International Conference on Quranic Studies, pp. 130-95, vol. 3, Qom: Publications of the University of Holy Quran Sciences and Education , 2015
Nehru, Jawaharlal, Discovery of India, Vol. 1, Tehran: Amirkabir Publications, 1982.
Rouhani, Seyyed Saeed, History of Islam in the works of Shahid Motahari, vol. 1, Qom: Maaref Publishing Office, 1999.
Shahidi, Seyed Jafar, Analytical History of Islam until the End of the Umayyads, Tehran: University Publishing Center, 1990
Shaltout, Mahmoud, War and Peace in Islam, Caspian Press Institute, 1991
Tabari, Mohammad Ibn Jazir, History of Tabari, translated by Abolghasem Payande, vol. 5, Tehran: Asatir Publications, 2004
Ya'qubi, Ibn Wadhih (Ahmad Ibn Abi Ya'qub), History of Ya'qubi, translated by Mohammad Ibrahim Ayati, vol 2, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publications, 1992
Ya'qubi, Ibn Wadhih (Ahmad Ibn Abi Ya'qub), History of Ya'qubi, translated by Mohammad Ibrahim Ayati, vol 1 Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publication, 2003
Yari, Siavash, History of Islam in India (from the beginning to the fifth century AH), Qom: Religions Publishing (affiliated to the University of Religions and Beliefs), 2014
Zaky, Abdul-Rahman, Muslims in Today's World, vol. 4, Al-Nahda Al-Masrya Library, 1959
Zargarinejad, Gholam Hossein, History of the Early Islam (Age of Prophecy), Tehran: Organization of the Study and Compilation of Provincial Science Textbooks of Universities, 2006.
Zarrinkoob, Abdolhossein, Karnameh Islam, Tehran: Amirkabir Publishing Institute, 2010